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Problem Statement

"A problem well-defined is half-solved." Albert Einstein. A problem which is well defined, basically amounts to one-half of the problem solved. 
Problem = A problem is defined as a perceived gap between the existing state and a desired state or a deviation from a norm, standard or status quo.
The Problem Statement in a post graduate research is the description and definition of a problem for which the candidate has set to find a solution by going through the academic rigour.
A theoretical framework is then developed to identify the parameters of the research. In doing so the researcher defines clearly what the research will focus on and the issues the study attempts to solve. The study will be targetted to find answer or solution to the problem identified earlier.
In developing your Problem Statement it will be good to refer to the current state of affairs as compared to the desired state, form, norm, standard or status quo.
Reference to a time frame, enables the researcher to limit or scope the work at a much later date. Supervisors and examiners are well known for asking why certain items or issues are not included. The limitation and the scope of study will be most useful to guide the work of the candidate in such a circumstances.
It is also a general guide that you must bear in mind to design your problem statement to answer the 5W+1H. (Who, What, Where, When, Why and How) systematically.
In designing the problem statement, you must be clear, concise, specific, use facts and figures to highlight the problem. All these in 2 sentences only!
Diagrammatically the position can be summarized as shown in the following diagram.
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